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Nombre: Yossef Najjar
Ciudad: Toluca
País: Mexico

Visitas: 15223

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Itinerario a la Ortodoxia.

Del Santoral y del Leccionario...Epoca Pascual.
Liturgia Pascual. Hechos 1,1-8, San Juan 1,1-17
Lunes de la luz.Hechos 1,12-17 21-26,Juan 1,18-28
Martes de la luzHechos 2,14-21 Lucas 24,12-35
Miercoles de la luz.Hehcos 2,22-36 Juan 1,35-51
Jueves de la luz.Hehcos 2,38-43 Juan 3,1-15
Viernes Hechos 3,1-8 Juan 2,12-22
Sabado de la luz Hechos 3,11-16, Juan 3,22-33
Domingo de Santo Tomas. Hechos 5,12-20 Juan 20,19-31.
Lunes hechos 3,19-26 Juan 2,1-11
Martes Hechos 4,1-10, Juan 3,16-21
Miercoles hechos 4,13-22,Juan 5,17-24
Jueves HECHOS 4,23-31 jUAN 5,24-30
Viernes Hechos 5,1-11 Juan 5,30-6,2
Sabado Hechos 5,21-33,Juan 6,14-27.

Del Santoral y del Leccionario.
Epoca pascual.
1. Semana de la Luz.
Pascua. Hechos 1,1-8 Sn. Juan 1,1-17
8 abril 2007
Lunes Martes miercoles jueves viernes sabado
Hehcos 1,12-17 Hechos 2,14-21 Hechos 2,22-36 Hechos 2,38-43 Hechos 3,1-8 Hechos3,11-16
Juan 1,18-28 Lucas 24,12-35 Juan 1,35-51 Juan3,1-15 Juan 2,12-22 Juan 3,22-33
Segundo domingo de Pascua. Domingo de Santo Tomàs. Hechos 5,12-20 Juan 20,19-31.La duda de Tomàs se transformò en una prueba irrefutable de la realidad de la resurrecciòn.
15 de abril 2007
Segunda semana de Pascua.
Lunes Martes Miercoles Jueves Viernes Sabado.
Hechos 3,19-26
Juan 2,1-11 Hechos 4,1-10
Juan 3,16-21 Hechos 4,13-22
Juan 5,17-24 Hechos 4,23-31
Juan 5,24-30 Hechos 5,1-11Juan 5,30-6,2 Hechos 5,21-33Juan 6,14-27

Tercer domingo de Pascua.
Domingo de las Mirròforas y de Nicodemo y Josè de Arimatea.
¡EL SEPULCRO VACIO¡y las mujeres mirròforas por su valentìa y lealtad, se hicieron dignas de anunciar esta novedad ¡CRISTO HA RESUCITADO¡
22 de abril 2007
Hechos 6,1-7 Marcos 15,43-16,8.
Lunes martes miercoles jueves viernes Sabado.
6,8-7,5 8,5-17 8,18-25 8,26-39 8,40-9,19 9,19-31
4,46-54 6,27-33 6,35-39 6,40-44 6,48-54 15,17-16,2
Cuarto domingo de Pascua.
La piscina de Bethesda es figura de la pila bautismal. Mientras el angel del sEÑOR BAJABA DE TIEMPO EN TIEMPO,A LA Piscina y agitaba el agua, volviendola fuente de curaciòn,el espiritu santo desciende sobre el agua bautismal,convirtiendola en fuente de salvaciòn y quien es sumergido en ella participa de la muerte de CRISTO Y EN SU RESURRECCIÒN A LA VIDA ETERNA.
Domingo del Paralìtico.
29-abril 2007
Hechos 9,32-42 Juan 5,1-15.
lunes martes miercoles jueves viernes sabado
10,1-16 10,21-33 14,6-18 10,34-43 Hechos 10-44-11,10 12,1-11
6,56-69 7,1-13 7,14-30 8,12-20 8,21-30 8,31-42
Quinto domingo de Pascua. Domingo de la Samaritana.
6 mayo 2007
Hechos 11,19-26 y 29-30.
San Juan 4,5-42.
lunes martes miercoles jueves viernes sabado
12,12-17 12,25-13,12 13,13-24 14,20-27 15,5-34 15-35-41
8,42-51 8,51-59 6,5-14 9,39-10,9 10,17-28 10,27-38
Sexto domingo de Pascua.
Domingo del Ciego.
15 de mayo del 2007
Hechos 16,16-34 y Juan 9,1-38.
lunes martes miercoles jueves viernes sabado
17,1-15 17,19-28 18,22-28 1,1-12 19,1-8 20,7-12
11,47-51 12,19-36 12,36-47 Lucas 24,36-53 Juan 14,1-11 Juan 14,10-21

The Veneration of the Honorable Chains of the Holy and All-Praised Apostle Peter: In about the year 42, on the orders of Herod Agrippa, the Apostle Peter was thrown into prison for preaching about Christ the Savior. In prison he was held secure by two iron chains. During the night before his trial, an angel of the Lord removed these chains from the Apostle Peter and led him out from the prison (Acts 12:1-11).

Christians who learned of the miracle took the chains and kept them as precious keepsakes. For three centuries the chains were kept in Jerusalem, and those afflicted with illness and approached them with faith received healing. Patriarch Juvenal (July 2) presented the chains to Eudokia, wife of the emperor Theodosius the Younger, and she in turn transferred them from Jerusalem to Constantinople in either the year 437 or 439.

Eudokia sent one chain to Rome to her daughter Eudoxia (the wife of Valentinian), who built a church on the Esquiline hill dedicated to the Apostle Peter and placed the chain in it. There were other chains in Rome, with which the Apostle Peter was shackled before his martyrdom under the emperor Nero. These were also placed in the church.

On January 16, the chains of St Peter are brought out for public veneration
Troparion - Tone 4

You came to us without leaving Rome
through the precious chains that you wore.
First-enthroned of the apostles,
we bow down to them in faith and pray:
"Through your prayers to God grant us great mercy."

Kontakion - Tone 2

Christ the Rock radiantly glorifies the Rock of Faith,
the first-enthroned of the disciples;
He calls us to honor the miracles wrought through Peter's chains,
so that He may grant us forgiveness of our sins.
Saint Anthony the Great is known as the Father of monasticism, and the long ascetical sermon in The Life of St Anthony by St Athanasius (Sections 16-34), could be called the first monastic Rule.

He was born in Egypt in the village of Coma, near the desert of the Thebaid, in the year 251. His parents were pious Christians of illustrious lineage. Anthony was a serious child and was respectful and obedient to his parents. He loved to attend church services, and he listened to the Holy Scripture so attentively, that he remembered what he heard all his life.

When St Anthony was about twenty years old, he lost his parents, but he was responsible for the care of his younger sister. Going to church about six months later, the youth reflected on how the faithful,in the Acts of the Apostles (4:35), sold their possessions and gave the proceeds to the Apostles for the needy.

Then he entered the church and heard the Gospel passage where Christ speaks to the rich young man: "If you would be perfect, go, sell what you possess and give it to the poor, and you will have treasure in heaven; and come follow Me" (Mt.19:21). Anthony felt that these words applied to him. Therefore, he sold the property that he received after the death of his parents, then distributed the money to the poor, and left his sister in the care of pious virgins in a convent.

Leaving his parental home, St Anthony began his ascetical life in a hut not far from his village. By working with his hands, he was able to earn his livelihood and also alms for the poor. Sometimes, the holy youth also visited other ascetics living in the area, and from each he sought direction and benefit. He turned to one particular ascetic for guidance in the spiritual life.

In this period of his life St Anthony endured terrible temptations from the devil. The Enemy of the race of man troubled the young ascetic with thoughts of his former life, doubts about his chosen path, concern for his sister, and he tempted Anthony with lewd thoughts and carnal feelings. But the saint extinguished that fire by meditating on Christ and by thinking of eternal punishment, thereby overcoming the devil.

Realizing that the devil would undoubtedly attack him in another manner, St Anthony prayed and intensified his efforts. Anthony prayed that the Lord would show him the path of salvation. And he was granted a vision. The ascetic beheld a man, who by turns alternately finished a prayer, and then began to work. This was an angel, which the Lord had sent to instruct His chosen one.

St Anthony tried to accustom himself to a stricter way of life. He partook of food only after sunset, he spent all night praying until dawn. Soon he slept only every third day. But the devil would not cease his tricks, and trying to scare the monk, he appeared under the guise of monstrous phantoms. The saint however protected himself with the Life-Creating Cross. Finally the Enemy appeared to him in the guise of a frightful looking black child, and hypocritically declaring himself beaten, he thought he could tempt the saint into vanity and pride. The saint, however, vanquished the Enemy with prayer.

For even greater solitude, St Anthony moved farther away from the village, into a graveyard. He asked a friend to bring him a little bread on designated days, then shut himself in a tomb. Then the devils pounced upon the saint intending to kill him, and inflicted terrible wounds upon him. By the providence of the Lord, Anthony's friend arrived the next day to bring him his food. Seeing him lying on the ground as if dead, he took him back to the village. They thought the saint was dead and prepared for his burial. At midnight, St Anthony regained consciousness and told his friend to carry him back to the tombs.

St Anthony's staunchness was greater than the wiles of the Enemy. Taking the form of ferocious beasts, the devils tried to force the saint to leave that place, but he defeated them by trusting in the Lord. Looking up, the saint saw the roof opening, as it were, and a ray of light coming down toward him. The demons disappeared and he cried out, "Where have You been, O Merciful Jesus? Why didn't You appear from the very beginning to end my pain?"

The Lord replied, "I was here, Anthony, but wanted to see your struggle. Now, since you have not yielded, I shall always help you and make your name known throughout all the world." After this vision St Anthony was healed of his wounds and felt stronger than before. He was then thirty-five years of age.

Having gained spiritual experience in his struggle with the devil, St Anthony considered going into the Thebaid desert to serve the Lord. He asked the Elder (to whom he had turned for guidance at the beginning of his monastic journey) to go into the desert with him. The Elder, while blessing him in the then as yet unheard of exploit of being a hermit, decided not to accompany him because of his age.

St Anthony went into the desert alone. The devil tried to hinder him, by placing a large silver disc in his path, then gold, but the saint ignored it and passed by. He found an abandoned fort on the other side of the river and settled there, barricading the entrance with stones. His faithful friend brought him bread twice a year, and there was water inside the fort.

St Anthony spent twenty years in complete isolation and constant struggle with the demons, and he finally achieved perfect calm. The saint's friends removed the stones from the entrance , and they went to St Anthony and besought him to take them under his guidance. Soon St Anthony's cell was surrounded by several monasteries, and the saint acted as a father and guide to their inhabitants, giving spiritual instruction to all who came into the desert seeking salvation. He increased the zeal of those who were already monks, and inspired others with a love for the ascetical life. He told them to strive to please the Lord, and not to become faint-hearted in their labors. He also urged them not to fear demonic assaults, but to repel the Enemy by the power of the Life-Creating Cross of the Lord.

In the year 311 there was a fierce persecution against Christians, in the reign of the emperor Maximian. Wishing to suffer with the holy martyrs, St Anthony left the desert and went to Alexandria. He openly ministered to those in prison, he was present at the trial and interrogations of the confessors, and accompanying the martyrs to the place of execution. It pleased the Lord to preserve him, however, for the benefit of Christians.

At the close of the persecution, the saint returned to the desert and continued his exploits. The Lord granted the saint the gift of wonderworking, casting out demons and healing the sick by the power of his prayer. The great crowds of people coming to him disrupted his solitude, and he went off still farther, into the inner desert where he settled atop a high elevation. But the brethren of the monasteries sought him out and asked him to visit their communities.

Another time St Anthony left the desert and arrived in Alexandria to defend the Orthodox Faith against the Manichaean and Arian heresies. Knowing that the name of St Anthony was venerated by all the Church, the Arians said that he adhered to their heretical teaching. But St Anthony publicly denounced Arianism in front of everyone and in the presence of the bishop. During his brief stay at Alexandria, he converted a great multitude of pagans to Christ.

People from all walks of life loved the saint and sought his advice. Pagan philosophers once came to Abba Anthony intending to mock him for his lack of education, but by his words he reduced them to silence. Emperor Constantine the Great (May 21) and his sons wrote to St Anthony and asked him for a reply. He praised the emperor for his belief in Christ, and advised him to remember the future judgment, and to know that Christ is the true King.

St Anthony spent eighty-five years in the solitary desert. Shortly before his death, he told the brethren that soon he would be taken from them. He instructed them to preserve the Orthodox Faith in its purity, to avoid any association with heretics, and not to be negligent in their monastic struggles. "Strive to be united first with the Lord, and then with the saints, so that after death they may receive you as familiar friends into the everlasting dwellings."

The saint instructed two of his disciples, who had attended him in the final fifteen years of his life, to bury him in the desert and not in Alexandria. He left one of his monastic mantles to St Athanasius of Alexandria (January 18), and the other to St Serapion of Thmuis (March 21). St Anthony died peacefully in the year 356, at age 105, and he was buried in the desert by his disciples.

The Life of the famed ascetic St Anthony the Great was written by St Athanasius of Alexandria. This is the first biography of a saint who was not a martyr, and is considered to be one of the finest of St Athanasius' writings. St John Chrysostom recommends that this Life be read by every Christian.

"These things are insignificant compared with Anthony's virtues," writes St Athanasius, "but judge from them what the man of God Anthony was like. From his youth until his old age, he kept his zeal for asceticism, he did not give in to the desire for costly foods because of his age, nor did he alter his clothing because of the infirmity of his body. He did not even wash his feet with water. He remained very healthy, and he could see well because his eyes were sound and undimmed. Not one of his teeth fell out, but near the gums they had become worn due to his advanced age. He remained strong in his hands and feet.... He was spoken of everywhere, and was admired by everyone, and was sought even by those who had not seen him, which is evidence of his virtue and of a soul dear to God."

The following works of St Anthony have come down to us:

Twenty Sermons on the virtues, primarily monastic (probably spurious).

Seven Letters to various Egyptian monasteries concerning moral perfection, and the monastic life as a spiritual struggle.

A Rule for monastics (not regarded as an authentic work of St Anthony).

In the year 544 the relics of St Anthony the Great were transferred to Alexandria, and after the conquest of Egypt by the Saracens in the seventh century, they were transferred to Constantinople. The holy relics were transferred from Constantinople in the tenth-eleventh centuries to a diocese outside Vienna. In the fifteenth century they were brought to Arles (in France), to the church of St Julian.
Troparion - Tone 4

O Father Anthony,
By your zeal you equaled Elijah;
You imitated the life of John the Baptist;
You founded a city in the wilderness;
You established the Church on the firm foundation of your prayers.
Pray to Christ our God
That our souls may be saved!

Kontakion - Tone 2

You rejected the cares of this world
Fulfilling your life in meekness,
Imitating the forerunner in righteousness:
Together with him we honor you,
O Father of fathers, Anthony.

Saints Athanasius and Cyril were Archbishops of Alexandria. These wise teachers of truth and defenders of Christ's Church share a joint Feast in recognition of their dogmatic writings which affirm the truth of the Orthodox Faith, correctly interpret the Holy Scripture, and censure the delusions of the heretics.

St Athanasius took part in the First Ecumenical Council when he was still a deacon. He surpassed everyone there in his zeal to uphold the teaching that Christ is consubstantial (homoousios) with the Father, and not merely a creature, as the Arians proclaimed.

This radiant beacon of Orthodoxy spent most of his life in exile from his See, because of the plotting of his enemies. He returned to his flock as he was approaching the end of his life. Like an evening star, he illumined the Orthodox faithful with his words for a little while, then reposed in 373. He is also commemorated on May 2 (the transfer of his holy relics). Troparion - Tone 3

You shone forth with works of Orthodoxy and quenched all heresy,
and became victorious trophy-bearers, hierarchs Athanasius and Cyril.
You enriched all things with piety and greatly adorned the Church,
and worthily found Christ God,
who grants His great mercy to all.

Kontakion - Tone 4

Athanasius and Cyril, great hierarchs of true piety, and noble champions of the Church of Christ,
preserve all who sing:
"O Compassionate Lord, save those who honor You."
Saint Macarius the Great of Egypt was born around 331 in the village of Ptinapor in Egypt. At the wish of his parents he entered into marriage, but was soon widowed. After he buried his wife, Macarius told himself, "Take heed, Macarius, and have care for your soul. It is fitting that you forsake worldly life."

The Lord rewarded the saint with a long life, but from that time the memory of death was constantly with him, impelling him to ascetic deeds of prayer and penitence. He began to visit the church of God more frequently and to be more deeply absorbed in Holy Scripture, but he did not leave his aged parents, thus fulfilling the commandment to honor one's parents.

Until his parents died, St Macarius used his remaining substance to help them and he began to pray fervently that the Lord might show him a guide on the way to salvation. The Lord sent him an experienced Elder, who lived in the desert not far from the village. The Elder accepted the youth with love, guided him in the spiritual science of watchfulness, fasting and prayer, and taught him the handicraft of weaving baskets. After building a separate cell not far from his own, the Elder settled his disciple in it.

The local bishop arrived one day at Ptinapor and, knowing of the saint's virtuous life, ordained him against his will. St Macarius was overwhelmed by this disturbance of his silence, and so he went secretly to another place. The Enemy of our salvation began a tenacious struggle with the ascetic, trying to terrify him, shaking his cell and suggesting sinful thoughts. St Macarius repelled the attacks of the devil, defending himself with prayer and the Sign of the Cross.

Evil people slandered the saint, accusing him of seducing a woman from a nearby village. They dragged him out of his cell and jeered at him. St Macarius endured the temptation with great humility. Without a murmur, he sent the money that he got for his baskets for the support of the pregnant woman.

The innocence of St Macarius was manifested when the woman, who suffered torment for many days, was not able to give birth. She confessed that she had slandered the hermit, and revealed the name of the real father. When her parents found out the truth, they were astonished and intended to go to the saint to ask forgiveness. Though St Macarius willingly accepted dishonor, he shunned the praise of men. He fled from that place by night and settled on Mt. Nitria in the Pharan desert.

Thus human wickedness contributed to the prospering of the righteous. Having dwelt in the desert for three years, he went to St Anthony the Great, the Father of Egyptian monasticism, for he had heard that he was still alive in the world, and he longed to see him. Abba Anthony received him with love, and Macarius became his devoted disciple and follower. St Macarius lived with him for a long time and then, on the advice of the saintly abba, he went off to the Skete monastery (in the northwest part of Egypt). He so shone forth in asceticism that he came to be called "a young Elder," because he had distinguished himself as an experienced and mature monk, even though he was not quite thirty years old.

St Macarius survived many demonic attacks against him. Once, he was carrying palm branches for weaving baskets, and a devil met him on the way and wanted to strike him with a sickle, but he was not able to do this. He said, "Macarius, I suffer great anguish from you because I am unable to vanquish you. I do everything that you do. You fast, and I eat nothing at all. You keep vigil, and I never sleep. You surpass me only in one thing: humility."

When the saint reached the age of forty, he was ordained to the priesthood and made the head of the monks living in the desert of Skete. During these years, St Macarius often visited with St Anthony the Great, receiving guidance from him in spiritual conversations. Abba Macarius was deemed worthy to be present at the death of St Anthony and he received his staff. He also received a double portion of the Anthony's spiritual power, just as the prophet Elisha once received a double portion of the grace of the prophet Elias, along with the mantle that he dropped from the fiery chariot.

St Macarius worked many healings. People thronged to him from various places for help and for advice, asking his holy prayers. All this unsettled the quietude of the saint. He therefore dug out a deep cave under his cell, and hid there for prayer and meditation.

St Macarius attained such boldness before God that, through his prayers, the Lord raised the dead. Despite attaining such heights of holiness, he continued to preserve his unusual humility. One time the holy abba caught a thief loadng his things on a donkey standing near the cell. Without revealing that he was the owner of these things, the monk began to help tie up the load. Having removed himself from the world, the monk told himself, "We bring nothing at all into this world; clearly, it is not possible to take anything out from it. Blessed be the Lord for all things!"

Once, St Macarius was walking and saw a skull lying upon the ground. He asked, "Who are you?" The skull answered, "I was a chief priest of the pagans. When you, Abba, pray for those in hell, we receive some mitigation."

The monk asked, "What are these torments?" "We are sitting in a great fire," replied the skull, "and we do not see one another. When you pray, we begin to see each other somewhat, and this affords us some comfort." Having heard such words, the saint began to weep and asked, "Are there still more fiercesome torments?" The skull answered, "Down below us are those who knew the Name of God, but spurned Him and did not keep His commandments. They endure even more grievous torments."

Once, while he was praying, St Macarius heard a voice: "Macarius, you have not yet attained such perfection in virtue as two women who live in the city." The humble ascetic went to the city, found the house where the women lived, and knocked. The women received him with joy, and he said, "I have come from the desert seeking you in order to learn of your good deeds. Tell me about them, and conceal nothing."

The women answered with surprise, "We live with our husbands, and we have not such virtues." But the saint continued to insist, and the women then told him, "We married two brothers. After living together in one house for fifteen years, we have not uttered a single malicious nor shameful word, and we never quarrel among ourselves. We asked our husbands to allow us to enter a women's monastery, but they would not agree. We vowed not to utter a single worldly word until our death."

St Macarius glorified God and said, "In truth, the Lord seeks neither virgins nor married women, and neither monks nor laymen, but values a person's free intent, accepting it as the deed itself. He grants to everyone's free will the grace of the Holy Spirit, which operates in an individual and directs the life of all who yearn to be saved."

During the years of the reign of the Arian emperor Valens (364-378), St Macarius the Great and St Macarius of Alexandria was subjected to persecution by the followers of the Arian bishop Lucius. They seized both Elders and put them on a ship, sending them to an island where only pagans lived. By the prayers of the saints, the daughter of a pagan priest was delivered from an evil spirit. After this, the pagan priest and all the inhabitants of the island were baptized. When he heard what had happened, the Arian bishop feared an uprising and permitted the Elders to return to their monasteries.

The meekness and humility of the monk transformed human souls. "A harmful word," said Abba Macarius, "makes good things bad, but a good word makes bad things good." When the monks asked him how to pray properly, he answered, "Prayer does not require many words. It is needful to say only, "Lord, as Thou wilt and as Thou knowest, have mercy on me." If an enemy should fall upon you, you need only say, "Lord, have mercy!" The Lord knows that which is useful for us, and grants us mercy."

When the brethren asked how a monk ought to comport himself, the saint replied, "Forgive me, I am not yet a monk, but I have seen monks. I asked them what I must do to be a monk. They answered, 'If a man does not withdraw himself from everything which is in the world, it is not possible to be a monk.' Then I said, 'I am weak and cannot be as you are.' The monks responded, 'If you cannot renounce the world as we have, then go to your cell and weep for your sins.'"

St Macarius gave advice to a young man who wished to become a monk: "Flee from people and you shall be saved." That one asked: "What does it mean to flee from people?" The monk answered: "Sit in your cell and repent of your sins."

St Macarius sent him to a cemetery to rebuke and then to praise the dead. Then he asked him what they said to him. The young man replied, "They were silent to both praise and reproach." "If you wish to be saved, be as one dead. Do not become angry when insulted, nor puffed up when praised." And further: "If slander is like praise for you, poverty like riches, insufficiency like abundance, then you shall not perish."

The prayer of St Macarius saved many in perilous circumstances of life, and preserved them from harm and temptation. His benevolence was so great that they said of him: "Just as God sees the whole world, but does not chastize sinners, so also does Abba Macarius cover his neighbor's weaknesses, which he seemed to see without seeing, and heard without hearing."

The monk lived until the age of ninety. Shortly before his death, Sts Anthony and Pachomius appeared to him, bringing the joyful message of his departure to eternal life in nine days. After instructing his disciples to preserve the monastic Rule and the traditions of the Fathers, he blessed them and began to prepare for death. St Macarius departed to the Lord saying, "Into Thy hands, O Lord, I commend my spirit."

Abba Macarius spent sixty years in the wilderness, being dead to the world. He spent most of his time in conversation with God, often in a state of spiritual rapture. But he never ceased to weep, to repent and to work. The saint's profound theological writings are based on his own personal experience. Fifty Spiritual Homilies and seven Ascetic Treatises survive as the precious legacy of his spiritual wisdom. Several prayers composed by St Macarius the Great are still used by the Church in the Prayers Before Sleep and also in the Morning Prayers.

Man's highest goal and purpose, the union of the soul with God, is a primary principle in the works of St Macarius. Describing the methods for attaining mystical communion, the saint relies upon the experience of the great teachers of Egyptian monasticism and on his own experience. The way to God and the experience of the holy ascetics of union with God is revealed to each believer's heart.

Earthly life, according to St Macarius, has only a relative significance: to prepare the soul, to make it capable of perceiving the heavenly Kingdom, and to establish in the soul an affinity with the heavenly homeland.

"For those truly believing in Christ, it is necessary to change and transform the soul from its present degraded nature into another, divine nature, and to be fashioned anew by the power of the Holy Spirit."

This is possible, if we truly believe and we truly love God and have observed all His holy commandments. If one betrothed to Christ at Baptism does not seek and receive the divine light of the Holy Spirit in the present life, "then when he departs from the body, he is separated into the regions of darkness on the left side. He does not enter into the Kingdom of Heaven, but has his end in hell with the devil and his angels" (Homily 30:6).

In the teaching of St Macarius, the inner action of the Christian determines the extent of his perception of divine truth and love. Each of us acquires salvation through grace and the divine gift of the Holy Spirit, but to attain a perfect measure of virtue, which is necessary for the soul's assimilation of this divine gift, is possible only "by faith and by love with the strengthening of free will." Thus, the Christian inherits eternal life "as much by grace, as by truth."

Salvation is a divine-human action, and we attain complete spiritual success "not only by divine power and grace, but also by the accomplishing of the proper labors." On the other hand, it is not just within "the measure of freedom and purity" that we arrive at the proper solicitude, it is not without "the cooperation of the hand of God above." The participation of man determines the actual condition of his soul, thus inclining him to good or evil. "If a soul still in the world does not possess in itself the sanctity of the Spirit for great faith and for prayer, and does not strive for the oneness of divine communion, then it is unfit for the heavenly kingdom."

The miracles and visions of Blessed Macarius are recorded in a book by the presbyter Rufinus, and his Life was compiled by St Serapion, bishop of Tmuntis (Lower Egypt), one of the renowned workers of the Church in the fourth century. His holy relics are in the city of Amalfi, Italy.
Troparion - Tone 1

Dweller of the desert and angel in the body
you were shown to be a wonder-worker, our God-bearing Father Macarius.
You received heavenly gifts through fasting, vigil, and prayer:
healing the sick and the souls of those drawn to you by faith.
Glory to Him who gave you strength!
Glory to Him who granted you a crown!
Glory to Him who through you grants healing to all!

Kontakion - Tone 4

The Lord truly placed you in the house of abstinence,
as a star enlightening the ends of the earth,
Venerable Macarius, Father of Fathers.
التبجيل من الشرفاء سلاسل المقدس واشاد الرسول - بيتر : حوالي عام 42 بناء على اوامر من هيرود اغريبا ، بيتر الرسول كان يلقى في السجن لوعظ عن المسيح المنقذ. في السجن الذي احتجز اثنان من امن سلاسل. وخلال الليلة قبل محاكمته فالملاك من اللورد ازالة هذه السلاسل من الرسول بيتر وادي عنه من السجن (اعمال 12:1-11). المسيحيون الذين علموا المعجزه قد السلاسل وتبقيهم فالثمينه كيبساكيس. طوال ثلاثة قرون السلاسل أبقى القدس ويعاني المرض واقترب منها بايمان تلقي العلاج. البطريرك جوفينال / 2) تقدم السلاسل الى يودوكيا زوجة الامبراطور ثيودوسيوس الاصغر ، وهي بدورها نقلتهم من القدس الى القسطنطينيه في أي سنة 437 او 439. سلسلة يودوكيا أرسل الى روما لابنتها يودوكسيا (زوجة فالنتينيان) من بنى كنيسة على تلة سيكيلين مخصصة للالحواري بيتر وضعت في السلسله. هناك سلاسل أخرى في روما ، والذي كان الرسول بيتر مقيد قبل الاستشهاد تحت الامبراطور نيرو. هذه هي ايضا في الكنيسة. وفي 16 كانون الثاني / يناير سلاسل سانت بيتر لتقديمهم الى الجمهور التبجيل تروباريون نغمة 4 - قدمتم لنا دون ترك روما خلال الثمينه انكم يرتدون سلاسل. اول متوج من الرسل ، تنحني لها في الايمان والصلاة : "بمواقفك صلاة الى الله ان يمنحنا الرحمه العظمى". 2 - اللهجه كونتاكيون المسيح الصخرة بشكل متألق يمجد صخرة الايمان ، اول متوج للتلاميذ. وتدعونا الى تكريم المعجزات أحداثه من خلال بيتر سلاسل ذلك انه قد منحنا الغفران من الذنوب. سانت انتوني الكبير المعروف باسم ابو الرهبانيه ، وزهدي خطبة طويلة في حياة القديس اثاناسيوس سانت انتوني به (الأقسام 16-34) يمكن ان تسمي الاولى الرهبانيه القاعده. وقد ولد في مصر فى قرية قرب غيبوبه الصحراء من ثيبايد فى عام 251. ابوية تقي المسيحيين النسب الشهير. انطوني هو اخطر طفل واحترام ومطيع لوالديه. أحب الى حضور القداس في الكنيسة ، وانه استمع الى الكتاب المقدس لبانتباه ، انه يتذكر ما سمعه طوال حياته. سانت انطوني عندما كان حوالى عشرين عاما ، فقد والديه ولكنه كان مسؤولا عن رعايه له الاخت الصغرى. الذهاب الى الكنيسة حوالي ستة اشهر الشباب ينعكس على كيفية التنفيذ في اعمال الرسل (4:35) بيع ممتلكاتهم وسلم العائدات الرسل للمحتاجين. ثم دخلت الى الكنيسة والانجيل عند مرور المسيح يتحدث الى الشاب الغني : "اذا اردت ان تكون كاملا ، يذهب يبيع ما لديكم واعطائها للفقراء وستجدون كنز في السماء. وتأتي متابعة مني "(mt.19 : 21). انتوني يرى ان هذه الكلمات تنطبق عليه. ثم باع الملكيه انه بعد وفاة والديه ثم يوزع الاموال على الفقراء ، وترك اخته في رعايه تقي عذارى في الدير. مغادرته منزل الابوين ، سانت انتوني بدا له زهدي الحياة في كوخ بالقرب من قريته. من عمل يديه ، واستطاع ان يكسب معيشته والصدقات على الفقراء. احيانا المقدس الشباب ايضا بزياره اخرى الزاهدون الذين يعيشون في المنطقة ، وانه طلب من كل اتجاه والفاءده. التفت الي احد التقشف التوجيه في الحياة الروحيه. في هذه الفترة من حياته سانت انتوني تحمله من اغراء رهيب الشيطان. عدو الجنس من رجل قلق الشباب من أفكار التقشف مع شركائه السابقين في الحياة شكوك حول الطريق الذي اختاره ، والاهتمام اخته ، وأغرت انتوني البذيءه مع الافكار والمشاعر جسدي. لكن القديس اطفاء الحرائق التي تأمل في المسيح ويفكر في العقاب الابدي ، وبالتالي التغلب على الشيطان. مدركا أن الشيطان بلا شك سيكون الهجوم عليه بطريقة اخرى ، سانت انتوني صلى وتكثيف جهوده. انطوني أن يصلي الرب ان يريه طريق الخلاص. وكان يمنح الرءيه. التقشف رأى رجل من الأدوار بالتناوب الانتهاء من صلاة ، ثم بدأ العمل. هذا هو انجيل الرب الذي ارسل الى التعليمات التي اختارها. سانت انتوني حاول ان يروض نفسه على اسلوب حياة اكثر صرامه. وشارك من الغذاء الا بعد الغروب ، أمضى طوال الليل حتى صلاة الفجر. الا انه سرعان ما ينام كل يوم الثالث. لكن الشيطان لن تتوقف ألاعيب له ، ومحاولة تخويف الراهب ظهوره تحت ستار كل الخيالات. القديس أنه يحمي نفسه مع الصليب خلق الحياة. اخيرا يبدو ان العدو هو في صورة مرعبه النظر طفل أسود ، ورياء يعلن ضرب ويظن أنه يمكن أن يدفع إلى القديس الغرور والكبرياء. سانت غير مهزوم الصلاة مع العدو. لمزيد من العزله ، سانت انتوني سيبعد أكثر من القرية الى المقبرة. سأل صديقا لإحضار الخبز قليلا في أيام معينة ، ثم اغلق على نفسه في الضريح. ثم انقض على الشياطين القديس بنية قتله ، وانزل عليه الجراح الرهيبه. بروفيدانس من قبل اللورد انتوني لصديق وصل اليوم التالي لتقديم الطعام له. نراه ملقى على الارض ميتا ، فاذا به هو هو العودة الى القرية. وفكر القديس ميتا وكان أعد لدفنه. في منتصف الليل ، سانت انتوني عيه وقال صديقته للقيام اعادته الى القبور. سانت انتوني في قوة اكبر من الحيل من العدو. اخذ شكل حيوانات شرسه ، حاولت قوة الشياطين سانت لمغادرة المكان ، لكن الهزيمة التي نثق في الرب. النظر ، حتى يرى القديس السقف افتتاح المركز ، وبصيص الضوء القادمة من اجل وضع الية. واختفى الشياطين وبكى ، "اذا كانت لديكم ، يا رحيم المسيح؟ لماذا لم تظهر لكم من البداية الى نهاية المي؟ " اللورد أجاب : "كنت هنا انتوني ولكنه يريد ان يرى نضالكم. الان ، بما انك لم تحقق ، انا دائما تقديم المساعدة لكم اسمك معروف في جميع أنحاء العالم. " بعد هذه الرءيه سانت انتوني كان من تلتئم جروحه ويرى أقوى من ذي قبل. وبعد ذلك خمسة وثلاثين عاما. وقد اكتسبت خبرات الروحيه في صراع مع الشيطان ، سانت انتوني يجري النظر في الصحراء ثيبايد لخدمة الرب. وطالب الشيخ (الذي كان قد تحول الى توجيه في بداية الرهبانيه رحلة له الى الذهاب الى الصحراء معه. الشيخ نعمة ، بينما هو في ذلك الحين لم يسمع من عدم استغلال متقوقعه ، قرر عدم مرافقته بسبب عمره. سانت انتوني ذهب الى الصحراء وحدها. الشيطان حاول اعاقته ، وضع قرص كبير من الفضه في سبيله ، ثم ذهب ، لكن القديس تجاهلته واقره. وجد فورت المهجوره على الجانب الاخر من النهر واستقر هناك تحصين المدخل بالحجاره. المخلص الى صديق له هو الخبز مرتين في السنة ، وكان هناك مياه داخل القلعة. سانت انتوني امضى عشرين عاما في عزلة تامة ونضال مستمر مع الشياطين ، وأخيرا تحقق هدوء تام. القديسه الاصدقاء ازالة الحجارة من مدخل وذهبوا الى سانت انتوني والتمس منه ان يأخذ منها تحت اشرافه. قريبا سانت انتوني في خلية محاط بعدد من الاديره والقديس بمثابة الأب والدليل على سكانها ، اعطاء التعليمات ال

Camino a la Iglesia Ortodoxa.
Por un feligrés de la Iglesia Ortodoxa.







Conmemoración de los que han partido de la presente vida.
El sabado anterior al domingo del juicio final.
El sabado anterior al domingo del juicio final marca una conmemoracion de todos aquellos que han partido de la presente vida y van hacia su descanso. Este es el primero de cuatro sabados "de los muertos" que ocurre durante la disciplina de la cuaresma, su ubicación antes del domingo del juicio final recordamos que toda la humanidad y no sólo nosotros mismos y los que vendrán,sino todos aquellos,serán llamados a rendir cuentas en el día del gran reconocimiento que han partido antes de nosotros desde el primer momento de la creación.Sabiendo que nosotros vivimos en un mundo colmado con las consecuencias del pecado humano , el sábado de los muertos está dedicado a orar en beneficio de los miembros de esta gran familia humana quienes ahora duermen en el señor y quienes todavia siguen siendo unaparte importante en la historia comun de la salvación.
Los textos que siguen son extraidos de la himnografía del sabado de los muertos encontrado en el Triodon de la Cuaresma.
Troparion del dìa, Tono 8:
Oh Tu quien con profunda sabidurìa ordenaste todas las cosas en tu amor a la humanidad, who bestowest on all men, O ùnico Creador, lo que es mejor para ellos: da descanso, Oh Señor, a las almas de tus siervos, para ellos quienes pusieron su esperanza en Tì, Nuestro Creador y Nuestro Dios.
El Evlogitaria de los muertos, en Tono 5:
Bendito eres Tu, Oh Señor, ensèñame Tus mandamientos.
El coro de los Santos ha encontrado la Fuente de la Vida y la puerta del Paraiso ; que Yo tambièn encuentre el camino a travès del arrepentimiento. Yo soy la oveja perdida: llàmame y sàlvame oh Señor.
Blessed are Thou, O Lord, teach me Thy statutes.
O saints and martyrs who preached the Lamb of God and like lambs were slain, who now are translated to the eternal life that knows no age: pray fervently to Him, that He may grant us the forgiveness of our sins.
Blessed are Thou, O Lord, teach me Thy statutes.
All ye who in this life have trod the narrow way of sorrow, bearing the Cross as a yoke and following Me in faith: come and receive with joy the honours and the heavenly crowns that I have prepared for you.
Blessed are Thou, O Lord, teach me Thy statutes.
I am an image of Thine ineffable glory, even though I bear the marks of sin. Take pity on Thy creature, O Master, and cleanse me in Thy loving-kindness. Grant me the fatherland for which I long, making me once more a citizen of Paradise.
Blessed are Thou, O Lord, teach me Thy statutes.
Of old Thou hast created me from nothing and honoured me with Thy divine image; but when I disobeyed Thy commandment, Thou hast returned me to the earth whence I was taken: lead me back again to Thy likeness, refashioning my ancient beauty.
Blessed are Thou, O Lord, teach me Thy statutes.
Give rest, O God, to Thy servants and establish them in Paradise, where the choirs of the saints and the righteous shine as the stars of heaven. Give rest, O Lord, to Thy servants who have fallen asleep, and overlook all their offenses.
Glory to the Father and to the Son and to the Holy Spirit.
With reverence let us praise the threefold radiance of the one Godhead, and let us cry aloud: Holy art Thou, O Father who has no beginning, coeternal Son and Holy Spirit. Illumine us who worship Thee in faith, and snatch us from the eternal fire.
Both now and forever and to the ages of ages.
Hail, holy Virgin, who for the salvation of all hast borne God in the flesh. Through thee mankind has found salvation: through thee may we find Paradise, O Mother of God pure and blessed.
Troparion at Vespers, Tone 6:
Thy creative ordinance was my beginning and foundation. For Thou hast willed to fashion me as a living creature from natures visible and invisible: Thou hast made my body from the earth, and given me a soul by Thy divine and quickening breath. Therefore, O Saviour, grant rest to Thy servants in the land of the living, in the tabernacles of the Righteous.
السبت من القتلى قبل السبت الاحد الماضي القرار قبل يوم الاحد الماضي حكما يصادف ذكرى جميع الذين غادروا هذه الحياة وذهبت الى الراحة.هذه هى اول أربعة أيام السبت من القتلى ‘’ ان يتم خلال المؤتمر السنوي صومي الانضباطوموقعها مباشرة قبل الاحتفال الاخير قرار يذكرنا بأن جميع البشر ،ليس فقط لانفسنا والاجيال القادمة ،لكن جميع الذين سبقونا منذ اللحظة الاولى لانشائها ،سيحاسبون على يوم الحساب العظيم.معرفة اننا نعيش في عالم مليء نتائج خطيءه الانسان ،السبت في طريق مخصص للصلاة نيابة عن اعضاء هذا الانسان العظيم صيلة من الآن نيام في الرب الذين ما زالوا حتى الآن جزءا هاما من جهودنا المشتركة من تاريخ الخلاص.النصوص ادناه ماخوذه من هيمنوغرافي لالسبت من القتلى وجدوا في صومي تريوديون.----------------------------------تروباريون من اليوم نغمة 8 :أنت يا من الحكمة ورديريست عميق مع كل الاشياء في خاصتك حب للبشرية ، بستوويست على كل من الرجل ، أو علىلي الخالق ، الذي هو خير منها : اعطاء الراحة ، ربنا اشدد على ارواح خاصتك الخدمة ،وضعت عن الامل في اعمالنا ، أنت صانع وخالق ونحن له.في يفلوغيتاريا من القتلى في نغمة 5 : طوبى انت ، يا رب ، منى خاصتك التعليم الاساسي.الجوقه القديسين وجد ينبوع الحياة وباب الجنة.قد اجد الطريق خلال التوبه.أنا خسرت الاغنام : يدعوني الى وانقاذ لي ، يا منقذ.طوبى انت ، يا رب ، منى خاصتك التعليم الاساسي.او القديسين والشهداء من الحمل تدعو الله ومثل حملان اغتيلوا ،من ان تترجم الى الحياة الابديه الذي لا يعرف عمر : نصلي بحراره لهوربما يمنح لنا الغفران من الذنوب.طوبى انت ، يا رب ، منى خاصتك التعليم الاساسي.أنت في كل من هذه الحياة قد سلكت طريق ضيق الأحزانإذ عبر عن اي يجمع لي وبعد الايمان :ويأتي استقبال بحبور الشرف السماوية ويتوج ذلك اعددت لك.طوبى انت ، يا رب ، منى خاصتك التعليم الاساسي.انا صورة ذين لا ينمحي مجد ، وان كنت تحمل علامات خطيءه.تأخذهم الشفقه على خاصتك ، يا سيد الخليقه وطهر لي خاصتك المحبة - الشفقه.يمنحني الوطن الذي طال ، اي جعل لي مرة مواطن من الجنة.طوبى انت ، يا رب ، منى خاصتك التعليم الاساسي.انت يمتلك القديمة التي انشئت من لا شيء لي وشرف لي خاصتك الصورة الالهيه.لكن عندما عصي الوصيه خاصتك ، انت يمتلك عاد بي الى الارض من حيث أخذ الاول :تقودني عاد الى التشابه خاصتك ، تشكيل بلدي قديم الجمال.طوبى انت ، يا رب ، منى خاصتك التعليم الاساسي.إعطاء الراحة ، يا رب ، الى خاصتك وانشاء هذه الخدمة في الجنة ،حيث جوقات من القديسين وحق يشع النجوم من السماء.إعطاء الراحة ، يا رب ، الى خاصتك الذين سقطوا نائمين ، ويستغني عن كل المخالفات.المجد للآب والابن والروح القدس.مع الخشوع دعونا نشيد ثلاثة وهج من الحصانة ، ودعونا البكاء بصوت عال :الفن المقدس ، او انت الاب الذي لا بداية كويترنال الابن والروح القدس.أنر لنا من انت في العبادة والايمان لنا من خطف النار الابديه.الآن والى الابد واعمار الاعمار.نشيد العذراء المقدسة ، من اجل خلاص كل من يمتلك يوضع له في اللحم.انت البشريه خلال جدت الانقاذ : هل أنت خلال نجد جنة يا ام مجرد وبارك الله.تروباريون في صلاة الغروب ، نغمة 6 : ايجاد نظام خاصتك لي بداية تأسيسها.لأنت يمتلك الاراده على نحو ما لي كائن حي من الطبيعة المنظوره وغير المنظوره :أنت الذي يمتلك جسدي من الارض ، ومنحتني الروح الالهيه من خاصتك وتسريع النفس.لذا ، يا منقذ ، منح الباقي خاصتك الخدمة في ارض الاحياء والمعابد من حق



[Por la siempre actual presencia de esta problemática en la sociedad, concretamente en el seno de las familias, y en los medios de comunicación, quería destacar hoy este texto que figura en la sección de "Cápsulas" de la página web de la parroquia de la Santísima Virgen María, de Santiago de Chile, dependiente del Patriarcado de Antioquía]

Jesús mismo, en la víspera de Su muerte, en el solemne momento en que participó con sus discípulos en la última Cena, recordó el regocijo del nacimiento de un niño: “La mujer cuando da a luz, tiene dolor, porque ha llegado su hora; pero después que ha dado a luz un niño, ya no se acuerda de la angustia, por el gozo de que haya nacido un hombre en el mundo” (Juan 16:21). Todos los padres notan que la angustia es totalmente olvidada cuando el niño llega, no es solamente el dolor físico de la madre, sino también todas las inquietudes humanas, la preocupación financiera que todos los hombres y mujeres sienten tan frecuentemente antes de tener niños. Todo esto se olvida totalmente cuando una nueva y pequeña criatura, desvalida y totalmente “tuya” aparece en la familia y necesita desesperadamente amor y atención.

Y por ello la actitud de Jesús hacia los niños: “Y llamando Jesús a un niño, lo puso en medio de ellos, y dijo: De cierto os digo, que si no os volvéis y os hacéis como niños, no entraréis en el reino de los cielos.” (Mateo 18:2-3). ¿Puede uno comprender plenamente el significado de esta advertencia del Señor - probablemente una de las más relevantes de todo el Evangelio - si uno, deliberadamente se priva de tener niños?

De hecho, el nacimiento de un niño y su posterior crianza es un gran regocijo y una bendición de Dios. No puede haber un matrimonio cristiano sin un deseo inmediato e impaciente de ambos padres de recibir y compartir esta alegría. Un matrimonio donde los niños no son deseados se funda sobre una defectuosa, egoísta y carnal forma de amor. En darle vida a otros, el hombre imita el acto creativo de Dios, si él rehúsa hacerlo, no solamente rechaza a su Creador, sino también distorsiona su propia humanidad; ya que no hay humanidad sin una “imagen y semejanza de Dios”, es decir, sin un deseo consciente o inconsciente, de ser un verdadero imitador del creador de vida, el Padre de todos.

Sin embargo, hemos visto (capítulo I) que una de las diferencias esenciales entre la concepción Judaica del Antiguo Testamento y el matrimonio Cristiano era que, para los antiguos Judíos, el matrimonio era sólo un medio de procreación, mientras que para los Cristianos, es un fin en sí mismo - una unión de dos seres, en el amor, reflejando la unión entre Cristo y la Iglesia. Y, ciertamente, ni en el Evangelio ni en San Pablo se encuentra la idea de que el nacimiento de un hijo “justifique” el matrimonio. Como tampoco se encuentra esa idea en la literatura patrística. En su magnífica Homilía 20 sobre la Epístola a los Efesios, San Juan Crisóstomo define matrimonio como una "unión" y un "misterio", y sólo ocasionalmente menciona el dar a luz.

Sobre este punto, hay confusión de pensamiento y práctica para los cristianos occidentales modernos; los comentarios de los medios de comunicación que frecuentemente deforman y mal interpretan las encíclicas papales que prohíben el control artificial de la natalidad a los católicos romanos, contribuyen escasamente a una posible aclaración.

El punto es que, hasta hace poco, el pensamiento Occidental sobre el sexo y el matrimonio era entera y casi exclusivamente dominado por la enseñanza de San Agustín (+ 430). La peculiaridad del punto de vista de San Agustín fue que él consideró el sexo y el instinto sexual como el canal mediante el cual la culpabilidad por el “pecado original” de Adán es transmitido a su posteridad. El matrimonio, por lo tanto, era en sí mismo un pecado pues presupone sexo, y podría justificarse únicamente “mediante el nacimiento de un niño”. Consiguientemente, si el nacimiento es prevenido artificialmente, la relación sexual - inclusive en el matrimonio lícito- es fundamentalmente pecaminosa.

La Iglesia Ortodoxa - como hace la Católica Romana - reconoce la santidad de San Agustín, pero su autoridad doctrinal en la Ortodoxia está lejos de ser tan absoluta como es usada en Occidente. Y aún cuando, en la literatura monástica Cristiana Oriental, el sexo es algunas veces identificado con el pecado, la Tradición general de la Iglesia retiene muy firmemente las decisiones del Concilio de Gangra, que radicalmente rechaza la opinión que condena al matrimonio. Seguramente si el instinto sexual - en su forma “caída” y pervertida - se conecta frecuentemente con el pecado, no es el único canal mediante el cual se expande la maldad a lo largo de las generaciones humanas. El matrimonio en sí mismo es un sacramento; es decir, en las relaciones hombre-mujer, éste está siendo redimido por la Cruz de Cristo, transfigurado por la gracia del Espíritu, y transformado por el amor en una unión eterna.

Si sexo es igual a pecado, y si el nacimiento de un niño por si solo puede aliviar la culpabilidad, ambos el matrimonio y la procreación no son mejores que un pobre sustituto para el único ideal cristiano, el celibato. Estos no tienen un significado Cristiano positivo en sí mismo; y por lo tanto las relaciones maritales que evitan el nacimiento de los hijos son claramente pecaminosas, todo esto si uno adoptara solamente el punto de vista de San Agustín sobre sexo y matrimonio. Aún cuando la encíclica papal Humanae Vitae, prohíbe el control de la natalidad artificial, no está basada en San Agustín, sino que acentúa el interés positivo en la vida humana, permanece en las ideas sobre la maldad del sexo que dominaron el pensamiento Católico Romano en el pasado e indirectamente, impiden el liderazgo contemporáneo de un cambio de actitud hacia el control de la natalidad. ¿Cómo se puede contradecir una norma enseñada por tantos años?

La Iglesia Ortodoxa, por su parte, nunca se ha encargado formal y oficialmente de este el punto. Esto no significa, sin embargo, que las preguntas sobre el control de la natalidad y la planificación familiar son indiferentes a los Cristianos Ortodoxos y que su compromiso Cristiano no tenga implicaciones prácticas en este punto. Como hemos mostrado anteriormente, este compromiso Cristiano implica la creencia de:

- Que el nacimiento de un niño es el natural, santo y un elemento necesario en el matrimonio Cristiano.

- Que dar vida es un privilegio del hombre semejante a Dios, y que por lo tanto él no tiene derecho a rehusarse si quiere conservar “la imagen y semejanza de Dios” dada a él en su creación.

La encíclica papal Humanae Vitae incluye remarcables declaraciones en ambos puntos y, por lo tanto, no debería desecharse simplemente porque es papal.

Sin embargo, el punto de planificación familiar tiene también otros aspectos, que son reconocidos ampliamente y discutidos hoy. Por ejemplo, si la “vida” dada por los padres a sus niños debe ser una vida totalmente humana, no puede comprender únicamente la existencia física, sino también el cuidado paternal, educación y una vida decente. Cuando los padres engendran niños, deben estar listos para cumplir todas estas responsabilidades. Hay obviamente situaciones económicas, sociales y sicológicas en las cuales no se puede dar garantía en este respecto. Y hay a veces una cierta certeza de que los niños recién nacidos vivirán en hambre y miseria psicológica.

En esas situaciones, las diversas formas de planificación familiar, tan antiguas como la humanidad misma, han sido conocidas siempre por hombres y mujeres. La continencia total es una manera radical de control de la natalidad; ¿Pero es verdaderamente compatible con la vida del matrimonio? Y ¿no es continencia en sí misma un tipo de limitación del poder dado por Dios para perpetuar la vida? Sin embargo, ambos el Nuevo Testamento y la tradición de la Iglesia consideran la continencia como una forma aceptable de planificación familiar. La reciente enseñanza Católica Romana también recomienda la continencia por períodos, pero prohíbe los medios “artificiales”, tales como la “píldora”. ¿Existe una diferencia verdadera entre los medios llamados “artificiales” y los considerados “naturales”? ¿Es la continencia realmente “natural”? ¿No es cualquier control médico de las funciones humanas “artificial”? ¿Debemos entonces condenarlo, como pecado? Y finalmente, una seria pregunta teológica: ¿algo “natural” es necesariamente “bueno”? Inclusive San Pablo vio que la continencia podía conducir a “quemarse”. ¿No es la ciencia capaz de hacer del nacimiento algo más humano, controlándolo, tal como lo hace con el hábitat, la salud y alimentación?

La condena estricta del control de la natalidad fracasa en dar respuestas satisfactorias a todas estas preguntas. Nunca ha sido avalada por la Iglesia Ortodoxa como una totalidad, aún cuando, a veces, las autoridades locales de la Iglesia pueden haber emitido declaraciones sobre la materia idéntica a las del Papa. De todos modos, nunca ha sido la práctica de la Iglesia dar una guía moral, fórmulas o estándares que sostengan la validez universal sobre preguntas que realmente requieren de un acto personal de conciencia. Hay formas de control de la natalidad que son aceptables, e inclusive inevitables, para ciertas parejas, mientras otros preferirán evitarlas. Esto es particularmente cierto sobre la “píldora”.

La pregunta del control de la natalidad y de sus formas aceptables puede ser únicamente resuelta por cada pareja Cristiana en forma individual. Ellos pueden tomar la decisión correcta sólo si aceptan su compromiso cristiano con seriedad, si ellos creen en la providencia de Dios, si evitan tener demasiada preocupación en la seguridad material (“no os hagáis tesoros sobre en la tierra” Mateo 6:19), si se dan cuenta de que los niños son una gran alegría y un regalo de Dios, si su amor no es egoísta y ego centrista, y si recuerdan que el amor reducido al placer sexual no es amor verdadero. Por ejemplo, en la opulenta sociedad estadounidense, no hay prácticamente ninguna razón para evitar tener niños en los dos primeros años de matrimonio. De todos modos, el consejo de un buen padre confesor podría ayudar mucho en tomar el correcto “primer paso” en la vida marital.


Siguiendo las Escrituras, la ley canónica Ortodoxa formalmente identifica aborto con asesinato y requiere la excomunión a todos los involucrados: “Aquellos que den drogas que propendan a un aborto y aquellos quienes reciben veneno para matar al feto se someten a la penalidad del asesinato” (Sexto Concilio Ecuménico, canon 91).

En su canon 2, San Basilio el Grande específicamente excluye cualquier consideración que permita abortar en el período temprano de embarazo. “Aquella que intencionalmente destruye al feto sufrirá la penalidad del asesinato, y no hay ninguna distinción con respecto a si el feto está formado o no”.

La disciplina punitiva de la Iglesia temprana admitía que los “asesinos” pudieran recibir la Santa comunión únicamente a la hora de su muerte, si estaban arrepentidos. Sin embargo, hubo excepciones. El concilio de Ancyra específicamente permite algunas excepciones para los involucrados en el aborto: “Concerniente a las mujeres que cometen fornicación y destruyen lo que han concebido o quienes son empleados en la producción de drogas para el aborto, un decreto pasado las excluyó hasta la hora de su muerte, de la Santa Comunión. No obstante, siendo deseosos de usar cierto grado de indulgencia, ordenamos que ellos cumplan diez años (de penitencia)...” (Canon 21).

A fin de comprender totalmente la posición de la Iglesia Ortodoxa sobre el asunto del aborto, uno puede referirse a la solemne celebración de la Iglesia, de la fiesta de la Concepción de San Juan Bautista (Septiembre 4), la Concepción de la Theotokos (Diciembre 8) y desde luego la fiesta de la Anunciación (Marzo 25), cuando Cristo mismo fue concebido en el vientre de la Virgen. La celebración de estas Fiestas claramente implica que la vida humana - en este caso, la vida de Juan, de la Theotokos, y de Jesús, como Hombre - comienza en el momento de la concepción y no después, cuando, supuestamente, el feto llega a ser “viable”.

Si uno permanece en la perspectiva Bíblica y Cristiana, no hay manera de evitar el hecho de que el aborto es una interrupción de la vida humana, este no puede de ninguna manera ser justificado por los argumentos que se aceptan tan comúnmente en nuestra sociedad permisiva y secularizada: el malestar físico o psicológico de la madre, superpoblación, problemas económicos, inseguridad social, etc. Estos son desde luego males que necesitan ser curados, pero la cura no puede lograrse matando víctimas inocentes, que poseen una plena potencialidad para una vida humana normal. Si el aborto se acepta, como un procedimiento normal para encarar los males de la sociedad, entonces no hay estrictamente ninguna razón por la cual la matanza podría aceptarse como una “solución” en otras situaciones, particularmente en la enfermedad o vejez. Si al enfermo “terminal” (y la gente anciana es generalmente “terminal”) se le pusiera libremente término a su vida, que descanso psicológico para aquellos responsables sicológica y materialmente de su continua existencia, ¡Pero que horrorosa y totalmente inhumana perspectiva de la sociedad! Y asusta bastante descubrir que cerca estamos de su realización.

Para los cristianos, matar siempre es malo en cualquier circunstancia en que ello ocurra, no estando excluida la guerra. San Basilio el Grande pide que los soldados que se hayan involucrado directamente en matar a alguien durante la guerra, hagan una penitencia de tres años (canon 13). Sin embargo, por no condonar el total pacifismo (aunque lo admite a veces), la Iglesia reconoció que matar en la guerra no es totalmente idéntico a asesinar ya que esto ocurre (por lo menos, en un principio) para salvar otras vidas. En otras instancias, cuando un homicidio ocurre en defensa de una vida inocente, esto no puede verse, estrictamente hablando, como asesinato. Sin embargo, la actitud de San Basilio hacia los soldados indica que aun en este caso, asesinar esta mal, aún cuando posiblemente es un mal menor que una aceptación pasiva de la violencia por otros. Por analogía, uno puede considerar que en un caso extremo (y muy raramente) cuando se interrumpe la vida del feto únicamente para salvar la vida de la madre, puede también considerarse “un mal menor”. Sin embargo, en estos casos, la horrible responsabilidad de la decisión debe ser tomada con el total conocimiento del hecho que matar sigue siendo matar.

Los Cristianos Ortodoxos poseen una guía clara de su Iglesia sobre este funesto problema, por lo que sus propias responsabilidades familiares y personales están comprometidas. Ellos también ciertamente se opondrán a la legislación que legaliza el aborto, ya que ésta es una señal clara de deshumanización y cinismo de nuestra sociedad. Ellos recordarán, sin embargo, que una posición moralmente válida contra el aborto implica un cuidado especialmente responsable de los millones de niños en la miseria, hambrientos, sin educación e indeseables que vienen en el mundo sin una seguridad de vida razonable.



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Última actualizacion: 18/05/11 08:52:40

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